Pengertian reported...
 

Pengertian reported speech, tipe, dan contoh kalimatnya


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Apa itu reported speech?

Reported speech adalah suatu kalimat tidak langsung yang digunakan untuk melaporkan/menyampaikan kembali perkataan yang telah disampaikan oleh orang lain.

Reported speech (atau indirect speech) umumnya menggunakansay‘, ‘telldanask‘ sebagai reporting verbs:

  • She said that he went to Jakarta.
  • He told me to close the window.
  • She asked me where I would go.

Tipe Reported Speech

1. Reported Statements

Reported statement adalah pernyataan yang dilaporkan. Dalam melaporkan sebuah pernyataan dapat dilakukan di waktu sekarang (present) atau waktu lampau (past).

A. Reported speech dalam bentuk present

Menurut Thomson dan Martinet (1986: 269), reported speech dapat dikenalkan oleh reproting verbs (say/tell/ask) dalam bentuk present: He says that … Hal ini terjadi biasanya ketika kita melaporkan percakapan yang sedang berlangsung: He says that we have to study hard.

Apabila reporting verb (say/tell/ask) tersebut dalam bentuk present, present perfect atau future tense, kita dapat melaporkan peryataan langsung tanpa ada perubahan.

    "I am very happy."
Present She says that she is very happy.
Present perfect She has said that she is very happy.
Future She will say that she is very happy.

Dari contoh diatas, kita melihat tidak terjadi perubahan tenses dalam reported speech, hanya saja berubahnya kata ganti (pronounI menjadi She. Perubahan kata ganti ini terjadi dalam setiap reported speech.

B. Reported speech dalam bentuk past

Umumnya reported speech dikenalkan oleh reproting verbs (say/tell/ask) dalam bentuk past: He said that… Selanjutnya tejadi perubahan dalam reported speech tersebut.

Berikut adalah perubahan tenses:

Direct Speech
(kalimat langsung)
Reported Speech
(kalimat tidak langsung)
Present Simple
He said, "I buy an English book".
Past Simple
He said that He bought an English book.
Present Continuous
She said, "I am writing a letter".
Past Continuous
She said that she was writing a letter.
Past Simple
They told me, "We visited Borobudur Temple".
Past Perfect
They told me that they had visited Borobudur Temple.
Present Perfect
"I have met him", she told me.
Past Perfect
She told me that she had met him.
Past Perfect
"I had driven a car", he said.
Past Perfect
He said that he had driven a car.
Present Perfect Continuous
He said, "I have been playing guitar".
Past Perfect Continuous
He said that he had been playing guitar.
Past Continuous
"I was cooking fried rice", she told me.
Past Perfect Continuous
She told me that she had been cooking fried rice.
Future
He said, "I will go to Bandung on Saturday."
Conditional
He said that he would go to Bandung on Saturday.
Future Continuous
"I will be sleeping at 10 pm", she said.
Conditional Continuous
She said that she would be sleeping at 10 pm.

Berikut adalah perubahan modals:

Direct Speech
(kalimat langsung)
Reported Speech
(kalimat tidak langsung)
Can
"I can speak French", she said.
Could
She said that she could speak French.
Must
He told me, "You must study hard".
Must/had to
He told me that I must/had to study hard.
Would
"I would like to go", she said.
Would
She said that she would like to go.
Could
"I could dance when I was young", she said.
Could
She said that she could dance when she was young.
Might
They said, "We might play football on Sunday".
Might
They said that they might play football on Sunday.

2. Reported Questions

Reported questions adalah pertanyaan yang dilaporkan. Ketika kita melaporkan sebuah pertanyaan, maka laporan tersebut tidak lagi berbentuk pertanyaan, melainkan berubah menjadi pernyataan (statement). Kita lihat contoh berikut:

  • Direct speech: “She asked me, “Where do you live?”.
  • Reported speech: She asked me where I lived.

Dari contoh diatas, kita melihat bahwa pertanyaan (where do you live?) berubah menjadi pernyataan (where I lived).

Ada dua macam bentuk reported questions, yaitu: a) pertanyaan dengan question words (5W1H), dan b) yes/no questions.

a. Pertanyaan dengan question words

Question words antara lain: what, who, where, when, why, dan how.

Direct Speech
(kalimat langsung)
Reported Speech
(kalimat tidak langsung)
She asked me, "What are you doing?". She asked me what I was doing.
He asked me, "Who did you meet?". He asked me who I had met.
They asked him, "Where is your school?". They asked him where his school was.
"When did you play football?", she asked them. She asked them when they had played football.
"Why do you come late?", he asked me. He asked me why I came late.
"How was your holiday?", she asked me. She asked me how my holiday had been.

b. Yes/no questions

Gunakan if/whether (yang berarti apakah) dalam reported speech untuk yes/no questions.

Direct Speech
(kalimat langsung)
Reported Speech
(kalimat tidak langsung)
They asked me, "Are you happy?". They asked me if I was happy.
He asked me, "Do you like swimming?". He asked me if I liked swimming.
She asked me, "Did you pass the exam?". She asked me whether I had passed the exam.
He asked me, "Have you driven a car?". He asked me whether I had driven a car.

3. Reported Requests

Reported requests adalah permintaan yang dilaporkan. Permintaan ini biasanya dilakukan secara sopan. Untuk reported requests, gunakan ask + to/not to infinitive.

Direct Speech
(kalimat langsung)
Reported Speech
(kalimat tidak langsung)
"Open the window, please", she asked me. She asked me to open the window.
He asked me, "Could you make a glass of coffee". He asked me to make a glass of coffee.
"Please don't be sad", they asked me. They asked me not to be sad.
She asked us, "Please don't do it again". She asked us not to do it again.

4. Reported Orders

Reported orders adalah perintah yang dilaporkan. Gunakan tell + to/not to infinitive untuk reported orders.

Direct Speech
(kalimat langsung)
Reported Speech
(kalimat tidak langsung)
"Don't smoke!", father told me. Father told me not to smoke.
She told me, "close the door!". He told me to close the door.
"Be quiet", he told us. He told us to be quiet.
She told me, "Don't disturb me!". She told me not to disturb her.

Expression of Time in Indirect Speech

Ketika kita mengubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung, tidak lupa kita juga harus memperhatikan keterangan waktunya. Berikut adalah keterangan waktu dalam indirect speech:

Direct
(langsung)
Reported
(tidak langsung)
now then/at that time
today that day
yesterday the day before
the day before yesterday two days before
tomorrow today/the next day/the following day
the day after tomorrow in two days' time
next week/month/year the following week/month/year
last week/month/year the previous week/month/year

Perubahan keterangan waktu tergantung pada kapan kita mendengar direct speech dan kapan menyampaikan reported speech.

» Jika sebuah kalimat diucapkan dan dilaporkan diwaktu/hari yang sama, maka perubahan waktu tidak diperlukan:
This morning he said, “I will go to Jakarta today.” menjadi this morning he said that he would go to Jakarta today.

» Perubahan secara logis juga diperlukan jika sebuah kalimat dilaporkan satu/dua hari setelah diucapkan:
On Sunday Rani said to Dian: I will start teaching tomorrow.

» Jika Dian melaporkan esok harinya (on Monday), maka:
 Rani said that she would start teaching today.

» Jika Dian melaporkan dua hari setelahnya (on Tuesday), maka:
 Rani said that she would start teaching yesterday.

Semoga bermanfaat 🙂