Aturan dan contoh p...
 

Aturan dan contoh penggunaan relative pronouns pada kalimat adjective clauses


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Adjective clause adalah klausa atau kalimat yang memiliki fungsi untuk memberi penjelasan atau deskripsi pada suatu kata benda. Diantara adjective clause adalah kalimat yang diawali kata yang. Kata yang dalam bahasa Inggris dinyatakan dengan who, whom, whose, which, dan that. Kelima kata ini selanjutnya disebut relative pronoun. Penggunaan kelima relative pronouns ini dibedakan oleh fungsi dan peruntukannya. Berikut adalah contoh-contohnya.

A. Who

‘Who’ digunakan untuk menggantikan orang (he/she/they, dsb) yang berkedudukan sebagai subjek.

Perhatikan ilustrasi berikut:

  • The people were mostly young soldiers.
  • They were killed during the war.

The people - they were killed during the war - were mostly young soldiers.
The people - who were killed during the war - were mostly young soldiers.

Relative pronoun diletakkan tepat setelah kata yang diacu oleh kata yang digantikannya. They mengacu pada kata people, maka relative pronoun ‘who ’ diletakkan setelah kata people ini.

  • Prabu loves Ratu.
  • She is studying in SMA 1.

Prabu loves Ratu - she - is studying in SMA 1.
Prabu loves Ratu - who— is studying in SMA 1.

B. Whom

‘Whom’ digunakan untuk menggantikan frase orang yang berkedudukan sebagai objek atau complement (him/her/them, dll).

Perhatikan ilustrasi berikut:

  • The men are angry.
  • I don’t like them.

The men - I don’t likethem are angry.

The men - whom I don’t like - are angry.

Kata them mengacu pada kata the men, maka relative pronoun ‘whom’ diletakkan setelah kata the men ini.

  • Seanu wants to meet Kadita.
  • You met her yesterday.

Seanu wants to meet Kadita - you met her yesterday.
Seanu wants to meet Kadita - whom you met her yesterday.

Kalau dalam kalimat kedua sebelum frase yang akan digantikan dengan relative pronoun terdapat preposisi (kata depan), preposisi itu bisa dipindahkan pada posisi sebelum ‘whom’.

  • The man is angry.
  • The woman is talking to him.

The man - whom the woman is talking to him is angry.

atau

The man - the woman is talking to him - is angry
The man - to whom the woman is talking to - is angry.

Jika yang hadir adalah preposisi ‘of’, frasa yang muncul sebelum preposisi ‘of’ harus diletakan sebelum ‘of’ pada adjective clause.

  • Prabu has two brothers.
  • All of them are married.

Prabu has two brothers- all of them - are married
Prabu has two brothers- all of whom - are married

C. Whose

‘Whose’ digunakan untuk menggantikan frase orang yang menyatakan kepemilikan/kepunyaan (possessive: his/her/their/Prabu’s, dll.).

Perhatikan ilustrasi berikut:

  • Nunung is in hospital.
  • Her health hasn’t been good lately.

Nunung - her health hasn’t been good lately - is in hospital.
Nunung - whose health hasn’t been good lately - is in hospital.

  • She is looking for a boy.
  • You always borrow his motorbike.

She is looking for a boy - his motorbike you always borrow
She is looking for a boy - whose motorbike you always borrow

  • The book is a best seller.
  • Its story is about a contemporary true love.

The book its story is about a contemporary true love - is a best seller.
The book - whose story is about a contemporary true love — is a best seller.

Kalau dalam kalimat kedua sebelum frase yang akan digantikan dengan relative pronoun terdapat preposisi (kata depan), preposisi itu bisa dipindahkan pada posisi sebelum ‘whose’.

  • Atlas (in Greek Mythology) was a kneeling man.
  • The world rested on his shoulder.

Atlas (in Greek Mythology) was a kneeling man - on his shoulder the world rested.
Atlas (in Greek Mythology) was a kneeling man - on whose shoulder the world rested.

D. Which

‘ Which’ digunakan untuk menggantikan frase benda atau binatang atau ide baik berkedudukan sebagai subjek maupun objek.

Perhatikan ilustrasi berikut:

  • I saw a dog.
  • It was beaten by a boy.

I saw the dog - it was beaten by the boy.
I saw the dog - which was beaten by the boy.

  • That is the chair.
  • I sat on it yesterday.

That is the chair - I sat on it yesterday.
That is the chair - which I sat on yesterday,

Kalau dalam kalimat kedua sebelum frase yang akan digantikan dengan relative pronoun terdapat preposisi (kata depan), preposisi itu bisa dipindahkan pada posisi sebelum ‘whose’.

  • The book is a bestseller.
  • Everyone is talking about it.

The book - which  everyone is talking about it.

atau

The book -which  everyone is talking about.
The book - everyone is talking about
The book - about which everyone is talking.

Jika yang hadir adalah preposisi ‘of’, frasa yang muncul sebelum preposisi ‘of’ harus diletakkan sebelum ‘of’ pada adjective clause.

  • Prabu’s books are put on the shelves neatly.
  • Most of them are about child education.

Prabu's books - most of them - are about child education - are put on the shelves nearly.
Prabu's books - most of which - are about child education - are put on the shelves nearly.

E. That

‘That’ digunakan untuk menggantikan frase orang atau benda, dalam hal ini ‘that’ sama dengan ‘who’, ‘whom’, dan ‘which’.

The people - who were killed during the war - were mostly young soldiers.
The people - that were killed during the war - were mostly young soldiers.

Seanu wants to meet kadita - whom you met her yesterday.
Seanu wants to meet kadita - that you met her yesterday.

That tidak digunakan untuk menerangkan kepemilikan.

  • Nunung whose health hasn’t been so good lately is now in the hospital, (kita tidak bisa mengatakan: Nunung that health hasn’t been so good lately is now in the hospital.)

That juga tidak dapat diawali preposisi.

  • The man to whom the woman is talking is angry, (kita tidak bisa mengatakan: The man to that the woman is talking is angry.)
  • The book about which everyone is talking is a bestseller, (kita tidak bisa mengatakan: The book about that everyone is talking is a bestseller.)

Latihan soal adjectives

The service was ____
I think they are ____ mechanical engineers.
I want to be a ____ grammarian.
They all can speak English ____
You plants will grow ____ in spring and fall.
It is important to write a ____ cover letter for a job resume.
How do you write so ____ ?
I want to know how to do ____ on exams.
He run the company very ____
She looked really ____ without make up.

 
























Latihan soal pronouns

Is there ____ interesting in the newspaper today?
I don't like the hat of ____ at all. ____ doesn't suit ____ .
I can't find my watch ____ . I've looked for it ____ .
How much time does ____ spend on ____ homework?
The word "Germans" was ____ to be frightened at.
- ____ is your daughter?
- ____ is an English teacher.
Then she saw ____ father. He had laid ____ fishing rod and was taking something from ____ pocket.
Do you know ____ Cindy gave a present to her boss?
You are ____ now, and don't let ____ forget it.
-Yesterday I found a watch. I don't know whose watch was ____ .
-____ was ____ if you found it in the garden.